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Monthly Archives: August 2017

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Replacing Heart Valves Without Open Cardiac Surgery

Transcatheter  valves are actually in the majority of recent valve replacement procedures today.  This can be achieved without open heart surgery.  Coronary intervention involves opening the coronary arteries on the the surface of the heart, which has been done for years.  Two-thirds of the arteries open after receiving various pharmaceuticals, leaving a third of the [...]

By | 2017-08-31T16:49:57+00:00 August 31st, 2017|science|0 Comments

B-Cell Development

B-cells develop in the bone marrow.  The development of the B-cell in the bone marrow is where the B-cell develops it's immunoglobulin gene that it expresses on the surface.  B-cell development begins there with heavy chain gene formation with the genes heavy V and heavy DJ.  Say it hasn't rearranged the light chain yet.  A [...]

By | 2017-08-31T16:47:18+00:00 August 31st, 2017|science|0 Comments

Virus Structure

Nucleocapsids are nucleic acids complexed with the protein within a virus.  To grasp how small viruses are, a polio virus is 30 nanometers.  The viruses have spikes on their outside.  Tobacco mosaic viruses are round shaped viruses.  Many capsid proteins can reassemble into virus like proteins (VLPs).  Hepatitits B-Virus (HBV) and Human Papilloma-Virus (HPV) vaccines [...]

By | 2017-08-01T17:42:53+00:00 August 1st, 2017|science|0 Comments

How Viruses Enter Cells

Virus particles are too large to diffuse across the plasma membrane.  Receptors are needed to get viruses into cells.  Then, the genome can be transferred inside the cell. Only viruses of fungi, that have no extracellular phases; and viruses of plants, which enter cells by mechanical damage, don't utilize receptors to enter the cells.  One [...]

By | 2017-08-01T17:30:55+00:00 August 1st, 2017|science|0 Comments