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Replacing Heart Valves Without Open Cardiac Surgery

Transcatheter  valves are actually in the majority of recent valve replacement procedures today.  This can be achieved without open heart surgery.  Coronary intervention involves opening the coronary arteries on the the surface of the heart, which has been done for years.  Two-thirds of the arteries open after receiving various pharmaceuticals, leaving a third of the [...]

By | 2017-08-31T16:49:57+00:00 August 31st, 2017|science|0 Comments

B-Cell Development

B-cells develop in the bone marrow.  The development of the B-cell in the bone marrow is where the B-cell develops it's immunoglobulin gene that it expresses on the surface.  B-cell development begins there with heavy chain gene formation with the genes heavy V and heavy DJ.  Say it hasn't rearranged the light chain yet.  A [...]

By | 2017-08-31T16:47:18+00:00 August 31st, 2017|science|0 Comments

Virus Structure

Nucleocapsids are nucleic acids complexed with the protein within a virus.  To grasp how small viruses are, a polio virus is 30 nanometers.  The viruses have spikes on their outside.  Tobacco mosaic viruses are round shaped viruses.  Many capsid proteins can reassemble into virus like proteins (VLPs).  Hepatitits B-Virus (HBV) and Human Papilloma-Virus (HPV) vaccines [...]

By | 2017-08-01T17:42:53+00:00 August 1st, 2017|science|0 Comments

How Viruses Enter Cells

Virus particles are too large to diffuse across the plasma membrane.  Receptors are needed to get viruses into cells.  Then, the genome can be transferred inside the cell. Only viruses of fungi, that have no extracellular phases; and viruses of plants, which enter cells by mechanical damage, don't utilize receptors to enter the cells.  One [...]

By | 2017-08-01T17:30:55+00:00 August 1st, 2017|science|0 Comments

How to Combat HIV

HIV (which stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus) was discovered in the late 1970's. Some of the people that acquired the HIV virus were coming down with AIDS(Acute Immuno - Deficiency Syndrome).  These patients started dying from very common diseases.  The HIV virus was found by assaying for the enzyme reverse transcriptase.  When activated reverse transcriptase [...]

By | 2017-07-20T14:50:15+00:00 July 20th, 2017|science|0 Comments

Gene Therapy

In gene therapy, scientists infect cells with retroviruses that can be programmed to carry a gene.  This gene can override a mutation and encode a protein that performs normally.  However, there may be some side effects.  Originally in these cells, the mutated genes may cause deformed proteins to be translated or possibly certain proteins may [...]

By | 2017-07-18T17:51:55+00:00 July 18th, 2017|science|0 Comments

Immunosuppressive Drugs for Kidney Transplantation

For kidney patients, dialysis is an effective way of preserving life; but transplantation of the kidney is the optimal choice.  Now, with immunosuppressive medications, less than 20% of kidney transplant patients realize rejection.  The rejection of the new kidneys by the patients decreased dramatically around 1995; and the discovery of new anti-rejection drugs stopped around [...]

By | 2017-07-18T17:48:05+00:00 July 18th, 2017|science|0 Comments


Ever since the Apollo project at NASA had been completed, scientists and engineers have been seeking support for a Mars program which would first provide manned space travel to Mars from Earth; and subsequently even provide living quarters on the planet Mars.  It has been projected that these living quarters be constructed similar to domes [...]

By | 2017-07-17T21:20:59+00:00 July 17th, 2017|science|0 Comments


In the 1980’s, William Coley, a surgeon at New York Memorial ( now known as Sloan Kettering Memorial Cancer Center) observed that some patients infected during surgery could reject their tumors.  He noted that killed Strep. pyogenes and Serratia Marcescens (which he named Coley’s Toxin) could lead to similar rejection of tumor cells.  He famously [...]

By | 2017-07-17T21:20:16+00:00 July 17th, 2017|science|0 Comments